Bioliance lab results: LEO
Bioliance website: BIOLIANCE

Infertility Factors

General information

Infertility is defined as the lack of pregnancy occurence for a couple. It is considered that after a year of regular sexual intercourse, 80% of childbearing-age couples should be able to start a pregnancy.

It can be primary or secondary, has various causes, sometimes feminine, sometimes masculine or both. Sometimes no cause can be found.

Many risk factors decrease the chances to start a pregnancy.

Why cannot the oocyte that goes out from the ovary, usually around the 14th day of the female cycle, meet the spermatozoon deposited in the vagina during a sexual intercourse?

The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) aims at answering this question and tries to bring a solution thanks to appropriate techniques: stimulation, insemination, In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF).

THE REASONS FOR INFERTILITY

The reasons for infertility are multiple: when they do exist, they can be feminine (1/3 of the cases), masculine (1/3 of the cases), mixed (1/3 of the cases).

Feminine

  • ovulation problems, that is to say unability to produce an oocyte capable of being fertilised
  • obstructed Fallopian tubes
  • cervical mucus defect
  • endocrinal causes leading to a hormone disorder: thyroid pathology, prolactin excess
  • cervical defect: fibromas, polyps, uterine malformations
  • vaginal factors: vaginismus leading to an incapacity to have sexual relationships

Masculine

  • Abnormality of spermatic standards
  • Erectile disorder
  • Genetic abnormality: karyotype abnormalities (translocations)

Unexplained

  • No reason has been found in the course of the check-up carried out with the couple. The more thorough the check-up is, the less the percentage of unexplained infertilities becomes.

RISK FACTORS

Infertility risk factors are multiple, at the same time masculine, feminine, environmental, etc.

Feminine factors:

  • mother’s age: for women fertility starts decreasing at the age of 35 in average, but it varies according to each woman (sometimes before 30)
  • smoking: smoking reduces the chances of success in ART by 10%
  • genital infections, particularly tube infections called salpingitis leading to tube obstruction risks, or to a tube malfunction
  • surgical history with adhesion risks
  • organic disease such as endometriosi

Masculine factors:

  • spermatic factors
  • surgical history: testicular tortion, cryptorchid
  • clinical abnormalities: varicocele
  • history of sexually transmitted disease
  • smoking
  • medicines
  • drug use including cannabis
  • environment: heat including professional environment
  • age but not as importantly as for women

Factors related to the couple

  • sexual disorder

November 2015